Mini Review: Hypocholesterolemic Potential of Unsaponifiable Matter from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate

angela wulansari, Teti Estiasih, Yunianta Yunianta

Abstract

Palm fruit as raw material of palm oil is the main commodity of Indonesian agriculture. Palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) is a by-product of palm oil refinery process in deodorization stage. PFAD contained bioactive compounds such as vitamin E, phytosterols, and squalene. Vitamin E, phytosterols, and squalene have knows for its hypocholesterolemic effect and cardio protector. Bioactive compounds of PFAD can be separated from its fatty acid using saponification reaction. Saponification of PFAD produced unsaponifiable matter (USM) which was rich in bioactive compounds. Food fortification is aimed to enhance the nutrition quality of food for specific reason. The fortificant can be macronutrient or micronutrient. USM of PFAD potentially become food product fortificant which will give hypocholesterolemic effect. This review is discussed about hypocholesterolemic effect of each bioactive compounds in USM of PFAD and the potential of USM as food fortificant espsecially for food with hypocholesterolemic effect.

Keywords

Fortification, Palm Fatty Acid Distillate, Phytosterols, Squalene, Vitamin E

Full Text:

PDF

References

Acuff RV, Cai DJ, Dong ZP, dan Bell D. 2007. The Lipid Lowering Effect of Plant Sterol Ester Capsule in Hypercholesterolemia Subjects. Lipids In Health and Disease. Vol 6: Page 11. DOI:10.1186/1476-511X-6-11

Ahmadi K. 2010. Kristalisasi pelarut suhu rendah pada pembuatan konsentrat vitamin E dari distilat asam lemak minyak sawit: kajian jenis pelarut. Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian. Vol 11 No 1: Page 1-10

Ahsan H, Ahad A, Iqbal J, dan Saddiqui WA. 2014. Pharmacological potential of tocotrienols: a review. Nutrition & Metabolism. Vol 11: Page 52. DOI: 10.1186/1743-7075-11-52

Ajuluchukwu JN, Okubadejo NU, Mabayoje M, Ojini FI, Okwudiafor RN, Mbakwem AC, Fasanmade OA, dan Oke DA. 2007. Comparative study of the effect of tocotrienols and tocopherol on fasting serum lipid profiles in patients with mild hypercholesterolemia: a preliminary report. The Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal. Vol 14 No 1: Page 30-33

Alhazzaa R, Oen JJJ, dan Sinclair AJ. 2013. Dietary Phytosterol Modify The Sterols and Fatty Acid Profile in a Tissue-specific Pattern. Journal of Functional Foods. Vol 5: Page 829-837. DOI: 10.1016/j.jff.2013.01.030

Awaisheh SS, Khalifeh MS, Al-Ruwaili MA, Khalil OM, Al-Ameri OH, dan Al-Groom R. 2013. Effect of Supplementation of Pribiotics and Phytosterols Alone or in Combination on Serum and Hepatic Lipid Profiles and Thyroid Hormones of Hypercholesterolemic Rats. Journal of Dairy Science. Vol 96:Page 9-15. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2012-5442

Balqis F. 2015. Fortifikasi Roti Manis dengan Mikroemulsi Fraksi Tidak Tersabunkan dari Distilat Asam Lemak Minyak Sawit yang Mengandung Senyawa Bioaktif Multi Komponen. Skripsi. Universitas Brawijaya Malang: Jawa Timur

Bartnikowska E. 2009. Biological activities of phytosterols with particular attention to their effects on lipid metabolism. Polish journal of Food and Nutritional Sciences. Vol 59 No 2: Page 105-112

Caligiani A, Bonzanini F, Palla G, Cirlini M, dan Bruni R. 2010. Characterization of a potential nutraceutical ingredient: pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed oil unsaponifiable fraction. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. Vol 65: Page 277–283. DOI: 10.1007/s11130-010-0173-5

Carr TP, Ash MM, dan Brown AW. 2010. Cholesterol Lowering Phytosterols Factors Affecting Their Use and Efficacy. Nutri Diet Suppiement. Vol 2: Page 59-72. DOI:10.2147/NDS.S10974

Chen CW, dan Cheng HH. 2006. A rice bran oil diet increase LDL receptor and HMG-CoA reductase MRNA expressions and insulin sensitivity in rats with streptozotocin/nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetes. Journal of Nutrition. Vol 136 No 6: Page 1472-1476. DOI:10.1093/jn/136.6.1472

Chen D, Huang P, Chiang C, Leu H, Chen J, dan Lin S. 2015. Phytosterol Increase Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Levels in Patients with Nonalcaholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Randomized Crossover Study. Journal of Functional Foods. Vol 13: Page 148-157. DOI: 10.1016/j.jff.2014.12.025

Clifton PM, Noakes M, Sullivan D, Erichen N, Ross D, Annison G, Fassoulakis A, Cehun M, dan Nestel P. 2004. Cholesterol Lowering Effect of Plant Sterol Ester Differ in Milk, Yogurt, Bread, and Cereals. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Vol 58: Page 503-509. DOI:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601837

Devaraj S, Jialal I, Rockwood J, dan Zak D. 2011. Effect of Orange Juice and Beverage with Phytosterols on Cytokines and PAI-1 Activity. Clinical Nutrition. Vol 30: Page 668-671. DOI: 10.1016/j.clnu.2011.03.009

Elson CE, dan Qureshi AA. 1995. Coupling the cholesterol and tumor suppressive action of palm oil to the impact of its minor constituents on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity. Prostalglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids. Vol 52: Page 205-208. DOI: 10.1016/0952-3278(95)90024-1

Estiasih T, Ahmadi K, Widyaningsih TD, Maligan JM, Mubarok AZ, Zubaidah E, Mukhlisiyyah, J, dan Puspitasari R. 2013. Bioactive Compounds of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) from Several Palm Oil Refineries. Journal of Food Science and Technology. Vol 5 No 9: Page 1153-1159. DOI: 10.19026/ajfst.5.3074

Estiasih T, Ahmadi K, Widyaningsih TD, Rhitmayanti E, Fidyasari A, Purnomo K, dan Wahyuni Y. 2014. The Effect of Unsaponifiable Fraction from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate on Lipid Profile of Hypercholesterolemia Rats. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. Vol 2 No 12: Page 1029-1036. DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-26

Farvin, K.H.S, Anandan, R., Kumar, S.H.S., Shiny, K.S., Mathew, S., Sankar, T.V., dan Nair, P.G.V. 2006. Cardio protective effect of squalene on lipid profile in isoprenaline induced myocardial infraction in rats. J Med Food. 9(4):531-536. DOI:10.1089/jmf.2006.9.531

Farvin, K.H.S., Kumar, H.S., Anandan, R., Mathew, S., Sankar, T.V., dan Nair, P.G.V. 2007. Supplementation of Squalene Attenuates Experimentally Induced Myocardial Infraction in Rats. Food Chemistry. 105: 1390-1395. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.05.034

Farvin, K.H.S., Surendraraj, A., dan Anandan, R. 2009. Synergestic Effect of Squalene and Simvastatin on Fecal Cholesterol Excretion in Rats. Asian Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1:102-106. DOI: 10.3923/ajcn.2009.102.106

Gapor, A.B. 2010. Production and Utilization of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD). Lipid Technology. 22(1):11-13. DOI: 10.1002/lite.200900070

Guillen, N., Acin, S., Navarro, M.A., Perona, J.S., Arbones-Mainar, J.M., Arnal, C., Sarria, A.J., Surra, J.C., Carnicer, R., Orman, I., Segovia, J.C., Ruiz-Gutierrez, V., dan Osada, J. 2008. Squalene in a Sex-dependent Manner Modulates Atherosclerosis Lesion which Correlates with Hepatic Fat Content in apoE-knockout Male Mice. Atherosclerosis. 197: 72-83. DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2007.08.008

Hayes, K., Pronczuk, A., dan Perlman, D. 2001. Vitamin E in Fortified Cow Milk Uniquely Enriches Human Plasma Lipoproteins. Am J Clin Nutr. 74(2): 211-218. DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/74.2.211

Hoang, T.M.H., Nguyen, C.H., Le, T.T., Hoang, T.H.Q., Ngo, T.H.T., Hoang, T.L.A., dan Dang, D.H. 2016. Squalene Isolated from Schizochytrium mangrovei is a Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-α Agonist That Regulates Lipid Metabolism in HepG2 Cells. Biotecnol Lett. 38. (7):1065-1071. DOI: 10.1007/s10529-016-2071-x

Idris, C.A.C., Karupaiah, T., Sundram, K., Tan, Y.A., Balasundram, N., Leolou, S., Nasruddin, N.S., dan Sambanthamurthi, R. 2014. Oil palm phenolics and vitamin E reduce atherosclerosis in rabbits. Journal of Functional Foods. 7:541-550. DOI: 10.1016/j.jff.2014.01.002

Jew, S., AbuMweis, S.S., dan Jones, P.J. 2009. Evolution of the human diet: linking our ancestral diet to modern functional foods as a means of chronic disease prevention. J Med Food. 12(5): 925-934. DOI: 10.1089/jmf.2008.0268

Ketaren, S. 2005. Minyak dan Lemak Pangan. UI Press, Jakarta

Khor, H.T., Chieng, D.Y., dan Ong K.K. 1995. Tocotrienols inhibit liver HMG-CoA reductase activity in the guinea pig. Nutrition Research. 15(4):537-544. DOI: 10.1016/0271-5317(95)00021-6

Khor, HT, Rajendran, R, Gopalakrishnan, M. 1998. The role of unsaponidiable components in the lipidemic property of olive oil. Mal J Nutr. 4:73-80

Leonard, SW, Good, CK, Gugger, ET, Traber, MG. 2004. Vitamin E Bioavailability from Fortified Breakfast Cereal is Greater than that from Encapsulated Supplement. Am J Clin Nutr. 79(1): 86-92. DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/79.1.86

Loganathan, R, Selvaduray, KR, Radhakrishnan, A, Nesaretnam, K. 2009. Palm Oil: Rich in Health Promoting Phytonutrients. Palm Oil Developments. 50: 16-25

Martinez, CS, Ribotta, PD, Anon, MC, Leon, AE. 2014. Effect of Amarant Flour (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) on the Thechnological and Sensory Quality of Bread Wheat Pasta. Food Sci Technol Int. 20(2):127-135. DOI:10.1177/1082013213476072

Minhajuddin, M, Bey, ZH, Iqbal, J. 2005. Hypolipidemia and antioxidant properties of tocotrienols rich fraction isolated from rice bran oil in experimentally induced hyperlipidemia rats. Food & Chemical Toxicology. 43: 747-753. DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2005.01.015

Mishra, BP, Badade, ZG, Lingidi, JL, Jaiswal, S, Anand, BK. 2014. Tocotrienols and its impact in cardiovascular health. Int J Clin Trials. 1(3):87-94. DOI: 10.2174/138161211796957418

Most, MM, Tulley, R, Morales, S, Lefevre, M. 2005. Rice bran oil, not fiber, lowers cholesterols in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 81:64-68. DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/81.1.64

Mutalib, MSA, Khaza’ai, H, Wahle, KWJ. 2003. Palm tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF) is a more effective inhibitor of LDL oxidation and endothelial cell lipid peroxidation than α-tocopherol in vitro. Food Research International. 36(5):405-413. DOI:10.1016/S0963-9969(02)00173-4

Nakamura, T, Takebe, K, Yamada, N, Arai, Y, Tando, Y, Terada, A, Ishii, M, Kikuchi, H, Machida, K, Imamura, K. 1994. Bile Acids Malabsorption as a Cause of Hypocholesterolemia Seen in Patients with Chronic Pancreatitis. Int J Pancreatol. 16(2-3): 165-169. DOI: 10.1007/bf02944327

Nestel, P, Cehun, M, Pomeroy, S, Abbey, M, Weldon, G. 2001. Cholesterol-lowering Effect of Plantsterol Ester and Non-esterified Stanol in Margarine, Butter and Low-fat Foods. Eur J Clin Nutr. 55: 1084-1090. DOI: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601264

Pali, V. 2013. Rice Bran Oil-Unique Gift of Nature: A Review. Agri Review. 34(4): 288-294. DOI: 10.5958/j.0976-0741.34.4.014

Park, Y, Carr, TP. 2013. Unsaturated Fatty Acids and Phytosterols Regulate Cholesterol Transporter Genes in Caco-2 and HepG2 Cell Lines. Nutrition Research. 33: 154-161. DOI: 10.1016/j.nutres.2012.11.014

Rhitmayanti, E. 2014. Efek Hipokolesterolemik Fraksi Tak Tersabunkan Distilat Asam Lemak Minyak Sawit Pada Tikus Wistas (Rattus novergicus) Hiperkolesterolemia. Tesis. Universitas Brawijaya Malang: Jawa Timur

Rudzinska, M, Przybylski, R, Wasowicz, E. 2014. Degradation of Phytosterols During Storage of Enriched Margarines. Food Chemistry. 142: 294-298. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.07.041

Scoggan, KA, Gruber, H, Chen, H, Plouffle, LJ, Levebvre JM, Wang, B, Bertinato, J, Abbe, MRL, Hayward, S, Ratnayake WMN. 2009. Increase Incorporation of Dietary Plant Sterols and Cholesterol Correlates with Decreased Expression of Hepatic and Intestinal Abcg5 and Abcg8 in Diabetic BB Rats. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 20: 177-186. DOI: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2008.01.011

Shin, DH, Heo, HJ, Lee, YJ, Kim, HK. 2004. Amaranth squalene reduces serum and liver lipid levels in rats fed a cholesterol diet. British Journal of Biomedical Science. 61(1):11-14. DOI: 10.1080/09674845.2004.11732639

Stock, J. 2014. Focus on Lifestyle: EAS Consensus Panel Position Statement on Phytosterol-added Foods. Atherosclerosis. 234:142-145. DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2014.01.047

Tang, F, Lu, M, Zhang, S, Mei, M, Wang, T, Liu, P, Wang, H. 2014. Vitamin E Conditionally Inhibits Atherosclerosis in ApoE Knockout Mice by Anti-oxidation and Regulation of Vasculate Gene Expressions. Lipids. 49(12):1215-1223. DOI: 10.1007/s11745-014-3962-z

WHO. 2014. Indonesia. www.who.int/nmh/countries/idn_en.pdf. Tanggal akses: 30/03/2016

Wilson, TA, Ausman, LM, Lawton, CW, Hegsted, DM, Nicolosi, RS. 2000. Comparative cholesterol lowering properties of vegetable oils: beyond fatty acids. J Am Coll Nutr. 19(5):601-607. DOI: 10.1080/07315724.2000.10718957

Yuen, KH, Wong, JW, Lim, AB, Ny, BH, Choy, WP. 2011. Effect of mixed tocotrienols in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Fuctional Foods in Health and Disease. 3:106-117

Zhang, ZS, Hou, DM, He, W, Wang, JY. 2011. Effect of phytosterol on blood lipid in hyperlipidemia rats. (J) Food Science. 065.

Zhao, ZD, Sun, Z. 2004. Research progress on natural resources and application of the bioactive substance squalene. Chem Ind Fore Prod. 24:107-112

Zou, Y, Jiang, Y, Yang, T, Hu, P, Xu, X. 2012. Minor constituents of palm oil: characterization, processing, and application. Dalam Lai, O, Tan, C, Akoh, CC. Palm Oil: Production, processing, characterization, and uses. Elsevier Inc., AOCS press

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.