Studi etnobotani ritual adat pernikahan Suku Tamiang di Desa Menanggini Kabupaten Aceh Tamiang Provinsi Aceh

Laila Ramadhani, Tessa Oktavianti, Andriani Andriani, Nafsiah Nafsiah, Risauli Juliana Sihite, Adi Bejo Suwardi

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Suku Tamiang merupakan salah satu suku yang tinggal di Kabupaten Aceh Tamiang dan masih memanfaatkan berbagai spesies tumbuhan dalam tradisi ritual adat pernikahan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendokumentasikan jenis tumbuhan yang digunakan dalam upacara adat pernikahan oleh Suku Tamiang di Desa Menanggini Kabupaten Aceh Tamiang. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Januari sampai Maret 2020 di Desa Menanggini Kabupaten Aceh Tamiang. Metode penelitian bersifat kualitatif dan kuantitatif. Pengambilan data dilakukan melalui wawancara semi terstruktur menggunakan angket dengan melibatkan 30 orang responden. Telah ditemukan sebanyak 20 spesies tumbuhan yang terdiri dari 16 famili dan 18 genus yang digunakan dalam upacara ritual adat pernikahan suku Tamiang di Desa Menaggini Kabupaten Aceh Tamiang. Bagian tumbuhan yang paling banyak digunakan adalah daun (36%), diikuti dengan batang dan buah (masing-masing 18%), biji (14%), bunga (9%), dan getah (5%). Tumbuhan tersebut sebagai simbol untuk mendapatkan ketentraman, kedamaian, rezeki, kebersihan hati, keselamatan dan ketenangan serta kelanggengan.

 

Kata kunci: etnobotani; pernikahan; Suku Tamiang; upacara adat

 

 

ABSTRACT

Etnobotany study of Tamiang tribe wedding rituals in Menanggini Village Aceh Tamiang District Aceh Province

The Tamiang tribe is one of the tribes that live in the Aceh Tamiang District and have been using different plant species in wedding ceremonies. This study aims to document the plants species used in wedding ceremonies by the Tamiang tribe in Menanggini Village, Aceh Tamiang District. The study was conducted in Menanggini Village, Aceh Tamiang District, from January to March 2020. Qualitative and quantitative methods are used in this study. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews using a questionnaire involving 30 respondents. A total of 20 plant species consisting of 16 families and 18 genera used in the traditional wedding ceremonies by the Tamiang tribe in Menaggini Village, Aceh Tamiang District. The most widely used parts of the plant were leaves (36%), followed by stems and fruit (18% each), seeds (14%), flowers (9%), and sap (5%). This plant is a symbol of peace, happiness, sustenance, pleasantness of the heart, safety and serenity, and conformity.

 

Key words: ethnobotany; ritual ceremony; wedding; Tamiang Tribe


Full Text:

PDF

References


Advice, V. (2009). The paradox of Africa‟s poverty: The role of indigenous knowledge in Zimbabwe’s environmental management issues. J. Sustain Dev Afr., 10(4), 1520-5509. http://www.jsd-africa.com/Jsda/V10N4_Spring2009/article10_04.htm

Anggraini, T., Utami, S., & Murningsih. (2018). Kajian etnobotani tumbuhan yang digunakan pada upacara pernikahan adat Jawa di sekitar Keraton Kasunanan Surakarta Hadiningrat. Jurnal Akademika Biologi, 7(3), 13-20. https://ejournal3.undip.ac.id/index.php/biologi/article/view/22368

Arvianti, I. (2010). Metafora tuwuhan dalam budaya pernikahan adat Jawa. Majalah ilmiah informatika, 1(3), 69-88.

BPS Aceh. (2020). Provinsi Aceh dalam angka 2020. Banda Aceh. Badan Pusat Statistik Provinsi Aceh. Retrieved from https://aceh.bps.go.id/publication/2020/04/27/eb7244dd105c046d07c4c8f5/provinsi-aceh-dalam-angka-2020.html

Budhisantoso, S. (2006). Kemajemukan masyarakat dan keragaman kebudayaan di Indonesia dalam bunga rampai kearifan lingkungan. Kementerian Negara Lingkungan Hidup.

Diman, M. W. (2003). Tamiang dalam lintasan sejarah mengenal adat dan budaya Melayu Tamiang. Yayasan Sri Ratu Syafiatuddin.

Fauziah, H. A, Al Liina, A. S, & Nurmiyati, N. (2017). Studi etnobotani tumbuhan upacara ritual adat kelahiran di Desa Banmati, Kecamatan Tawangsari, Kabupaten Sukoharjo. Biosfer, 2(2), 24-28. http://dx.doi.org/10.23969/biosfer.v2i2.657

Gomez-Beloz, A. (2002). Plant use knowledge of The Winikina Warao: The case for questionnaires in ethnobotany. Economyc Botany, 56(3), 231-241. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1663/0013001(2002)056[0231:PUKOTW]2.0.CO;2

Hariyadi, B., & Ticktin, T. (2012). Uras: medicinal and ritual plants of Serampas, Jambi, Indonesia. Ethnobotany Research and Application, 10, 133-149. http://www.ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/673

Mutaqin, A.Z., Astriani, W., Husodo, T., & Partasasmita, R. (2018). Pemanfaatan tumbuhan untuk beberapa upacara adat oleh masyarakat Desa Pangandaran Kecamatan Pangandaran Kabupaten Pangandaran. Jurnal Pro-Life, 5(1), 496-505. http://ejournal.uki.ac.id/index.php/prolife/article/ view/527

Helida, A., Zuhud E.A.M., Hardjanto, Purwanto, Y., & Hikmat, A. (2016). Makna nilai penting budaya keanekaragaman hayati tumbuhan bagi masyarakat di Taman Nasional Kerinci Seblat di Kabupaten Kerinci, Propinsi Jambi. Berita Biologi, 15(1), 7-15. https://doi.org/10.14203/beritabiologi.v15i1.2853

Hulyati, R., Syamsuardi, & Arbain, A. (2014). Studi etnobotani pada Tradisi Balimau di Kota Pariaman, Sumatera Barat. Jurnal Biologi Universitas Andalas, 3(1), 14-19. https://doi.org/10.25077/jbioua.3.1.%25p.2014

Iskandar, J. (2014). Manusia budaya dan lingkungan: Kajian ekologi manusia. Bandung: Humaira Utama Press.

Navia, Z. I., Suwardi, A. B., & Saputri, A. (2019). Karakterisasi tanaman buah lokal di kawasan ekosistem Leuser Kabupaten Aceh Tamiang, Aceh. Buletin Plasma Nutfah, 25(2), 57-66. http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/blpn.v25n2.2019.p57-66

Navia, Z. I., Audira, D., Afifah, N., Turnip, K., Nuraini, & Suwardi, A. B. (2020a). Ethnobotanical investigation of spice and condiment plants used by the Taming tribe in Aceh, Indonesia. Biodiversitas, 21(10), 4467-4473. http://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d211001

Navia, Z. I., Suwardi, A. B., Harmawan, T., Syamsuardi, & Mukhtar, E. (2020b). The diversity and contribution of indigenous edible fruit plants to the rural community in the Gayo Highlands, Indonesia. Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics, 121(1), 89-98. https://doi.org/10.17170/kobra-202004061145

Purwanti, M. & Pitopang, R. (2017). Studi etnobotani pada proses ritual adat masyarakat Suku Saluan di Desa Pasokan Kabupaten Tojo Una–Una. Jurnal Biocelebes, 1(11), 46 – 60. http://jurnal.untad.ac.id/ jurnal/index.php/Biocelebes/article/view/8471

Putri, R. I., Supriatna, J., & Walujo, E. B. (2014). Ethnobotanical study of plant resources in Serangan Island, Bali. Asian Journal of Conservation Biology, 3(2), 135- 148. https://www.ajcb.in/archive_dec_14.php

Rahyono, F. X. (2009). Kearifan budaya dalam kata. Wedatama Widyasastra.

Ristanto, R. H., Suryanda, A., Rismayati, A. I., Rimadana, A., & Datau, R. (2020). Etnobotani: tanaman ritual agama Hindu-Bali. Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi, 5(1), 96-105. https://doi.org/10.31932/jpbio.v5i1.642

Sada, M. & Jumari. (2018). Etnobotani tumbuhan upacara adat etnis Ngadha di Kecamatan Jerebu’u Kabupaten Ngada, Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur. Jurnal Saintek Lahan Kering, 1(2), 19-21. https://doi.org/10.32938/slk.v1i2.503

Sugono, D. (2008). Tesaurus Bahasa Indonesia. Depdiknas.

Sutrisno, I. H., Bachtiar, A., Navia, Z. I., Nuraini, & Suwardi, A. B. (2020). Documentation of ritual plants used among the Aceh tribe in Peureulak, East Aceh District, Indonesia. Jurnal Biodiversitas. 21(22), 4990-4998. https://doi.org/ 10.13057/biodiv/d211102

Suwardi, A. B., Indriaty, & Navia, Z. I. (2018). Nutritional evaluation of some wild edible tuberous plants as an alternative foods. Innovare Journal of Food Sciences, 6(2), 9-12. https://innovareacademics.in/journals/ index.php/ijfs/article/view/28168

Suwardi, A. B., Navia, Z. I., Harmawan, T., Samsuardi & Mukhtar, E. (2019). The diversity of wild edible fruit plants and traditional knowledge in West Aceh region, Indonesia. Journal of Medicinal Plants, 7(4), 285-290. https://www.plantsjournal.com/archives/?year=2019&vol=7&issue=4∂=D&ArticleId=1040

Suwardi, A. B., Navia, Z. I., Harmawan, T., Syamsuardi, & Mukhtar, E. (2020a). Wild edible fruits generate substantial income for local people of the Gunung Leuser National Park, Aceh Tamiang Region. Ethnobotany Research and Application, 20, 1-13. http://www.ethnobotanyjournal.org/ index.php/era/article/view/1523

Suwardi, A. B., Navia, Z. I., Harmawan, T., Samsuardi, & Mukhtar, E. (2020b). Ethnobotany and conservation of indigenous edible fruit plants in South Aceh, Indonesia. Biodiversitas, 21(5), 1850-1860. https://doi.org/ 10.13057/biodiv/d210511

Suwardi, A. B., Mardudi, Navia, Z. I, Baihaqi, & Muntaha. (2021). Documentation of medicinal plants used by Aneuk Jamee tribe in Kota Bahagia Sub-district, South Aceh, Indonesia. Biodiversitas, 22(1), 6-15. https://doi.org/ 10.13057/biodiv/d220102

Wiryono, Japriyanto, & Erniwati. (2017). The diversity of locally utilized plants and local botanical kwoledge in Central Bengkulu District, Bengkulu Province, Indonesia. Biodiversitas, 18(4), 1589-1595. https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d180437




DOI: https://doi.org/10.26877/bioma.v10i1.6090

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Journal has been indexed by:

 


Web
Analytics View My Stats



Bioma : Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi by Biology Education  Universitas PGRI Semarang

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.