Pengaruh Penambahan Bubuk Kokoa Terhadap Sifat Kimia dan Organoleptik Snack Bar Biji Hanjeli

Muhammad Rizki Purnama, Ibnu Malkan Bakhrul Ilmi, Muhammad Ikhsan Amar, Muhammad Nur Hasan Syah

Abstract


Prevalensi penyakit kardiovaskuler akibat hiperlipidemia meningkat setiap tahun. Hal ini dapat ditangani dengan mengonsumsi makanan tinggi polifenol dan serat pangan. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui efek penambahan bubuk kokoa terhadap nilai proksimat, total polifenol, kadar serat pangan dan sifat organoleptik snack bar biji hanjeli. Rancangan percobaan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) dengan tiga variasi penambahan bubuk kokoa; 5%, 7,5% dan 10%. Uji Kruskal-Wallis dan uji ANOVA digunakan untuk menganalisis data sifat organoleptik dan kimia. Penambahan bubuk kokoa berpengaruh nyata terhadap warna, rasa dan tekstur snack bar (p <0,05). Penambahan Bubuk kokoa memberikan perbedaan nyata (p <0,05) pada total polifenol snack bar. Snack bar dengan penambahan bubuk kokoa 7,5% merupakan formula terpilih dan memiliki komposisi kimia; energi (470 kkal), air (10,74%), abu (1,55%), protein (9,38%), lemak (23,88%), karbohidrat (54,44%), serat pangan (14,56%) dan total polifenol (125mg/100g GAE).

Keywords


Bubuk Kokoa; Hanjeli; Polifenol; Serat Pangan; Snack Bar

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adeyeye, E. I. (2016) ‘Proximate, Mineral and Antinutrient Compositions of Natural Cocoa Cake, Cocoa Liquor and Alkalized Cocoa Powders Sourced in Nigeria’, Journal Of Advanced Pharmaceutical Science And Technology, 1(3), pp. 12–28. doi: 10.14302/issn.2328-0182.japst-15-855.

Adiari, N. W. L., Yogeswara, I. B. A. and Putra, I. M. W. A. (2017) ‘Pengembangan pangan fungsional berbasis tepung okara dan tepung beras hitam (Oryza sativa L. indica) sebagai makanan selingan bagi remaja obesitas’, Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), 6(1), pp. 51–57. doi: 10.14710/jgi.6.1.51-57.

[AOAC] Association of Official Analytical Chemist 2005, Official Methods of Analysis: Association of Official Analytical Chemist 18th Edition, AOAC International, United States of America.

Araujo, Q. R. De et al. (2016) ‘Cocoa and Human Health: From Head to Foot—A Review’, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 56(1), pp. 1–12. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2012.657921.

[BPOM] Badan Pengawas Obat Dan Makanan Republik Indonesia (2016), Pengawasan Klaim Pada Label dan Iklan Pangan Olahan, Badan Pengawas Obat Dan Makanan Republik Indonesia, Jakarta.

Buil-Cosiales, P. et al. (2017) ‘Consumption of fruit or fiber-fruit decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease in a mediterranean young cohort’, Nutrients, 9(3), pp. 1–13. doi: 10.3390/nu9030295.

Davinelli, S. et al. (2018) ‘Short-term supplementation with flavanol-rich cocoa improves lipid profile, antioxidant status and positively influences the AA/EPA ratio in healthy subjects’, Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 61, pp. 33–39. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2018.07.011.

Fahrizal, F. and Fadhil, R. (2014) ‘Kajian Fisiko Kimia dan Daya Terima Organoleptik Selai Nenas yang Menggunakan Pektin dari Limbah Kulit Kakao’, Kajian Fisiko Kimia dan Daya Terima Organoleptik Selai Nenas yang Menggunakan Pektin dari Limbah Kulit Kakao, 6(3). doi: 10.17969/jtipi.v6i3.2314.

Fellows, P.J. 2000. Food Processing Technology Principles and Practice Second. Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton.

Jacobs, D. M. et al. (2017) ‘Effect of theobromine consumption on serum lipoprotein profiles in apparently healthy humans with low HDL-cholesterol concentrations’, Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences, 4(AUG), pp. 1–11. doi: 10.3389/fmolb.2017.00059.

Jannah, N. I., Tamrin, T. and Asyik, N. (2018) ‘Kajian Penambahan Bubuk Kakao (Theobroma Cacao L.) Dalam Komposisi Adonan Terhadap Penilaian Organoleptik, Karakteristik Fisik, Aktivitas Antioksidan Dan Masa Simpan Roti Tawar’, Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi Pangan, 3(2), pp. 1247–1259.

Jørgensen, T. et al. (2013) ‘Population-level changes to promote cardiovascular health’, European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 20(3), pp. 409–421. doi: 10.1177/2047487312441726.

Kementrian Kesehatan RI (2018) Tabel Komposisi Pangan Indonesia.

Liu, L. et al. (2019) ‘Exploitation of job’s tears in Paleolithic and Neolithic China: Methodological problems and solutions’, Quaternary International, 529, pp. 25–37. doi: 10.1016/j.quaint.2018.11.019.

Manosroi, J., Khositsuntiwong, N. and Manosroi, A. (2014) ‘Biological activities of fructooligosaccharide (FOS)-containing Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. Extract’, Journal of Food Science and Technology, 51(2), pp. 341–346. doi: 10.1007/s13197-011-0498-6.

Martínez-López, S. et al. (2014) ‘Realistic intake of a flavanol-rich soluble cocoa product increases HDL-cholesterol without inducing anthropometric changes in healthy and moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects’, Food and Function, 5(2), pp. 364–374. doi: 10.1039/c3fo60352k.

Mendonça, R. D. et al. (2019) ‘Total polyphenol intake, polyphenol subtypes and incidence of cardiovascular disease: The SUN cohort study’, Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 29(1), pp. 69–78. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2018.09.012.

Mirmiran, P. et al. (2016) ‘A prospective study of different types of dietary fiber and risk of cardiovascular disease: Tehran lipid and glucose study’, Nutrients, 8(11), pp. 1–12. doi: 10.3390/nu8110686.

Mishra, Gautam, Sharma (2013). Free Phenolics anf polyphenol oxidase (PPO): The factors affecting post-cut browning in eggplant (Solanum melongena). Food Chemistry, 139(1-4), 105-114. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.01.074

O’Flaherty, M., Buchan, I. and Capewell, S. (2013) ‘Contributions of treatment and lifestyle to declining CVD mortality: Why have CVD mortality rates declined so much since the 1960s?’, Heart, 99(3), pp. 159–162. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2012-302300.

Parekh, J. H. et al. (2014) ‘Quality Evaluation of Mango Bar with Fortified Desiccated Coconut Powder during Storage’, Journal of Bioresource Engineering and Technology, 1(April), pp. 40–47.

Parnanto, N. H. R., Utami, R. and Amalia, R. (2011) ‘Kajian Karakteristik Fisikokimia dan Sensori Snackbars dengan Bahan Dasar Tepung Tempe dan Buah Nangka Kering sebagai Alternatif Pangan CFGF (Casein Free Gluten Free)’, Jurnal Teknologi Hasil Pertanian, IV, No. 1(1), pp. 50–57. Available at: file:///C:/Users/hp/Downloads/13596-26670-1-SM.pdf.

Pérez-Jiménez, J. et al. (2010) ‘Identification of the 100 richest dietary sources of polyphenols: An application of the Phenol-Explorer database’, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 64, pp. S112–S120. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2010.221.

[PERKENI] Perkumpulan Endokrinologi Indonesia (2015) ‘Panduan Pengelolaan Dislipidemia di Indonesia’. PB. PERKENI.

Polagruto, J. A. et al. (2006) ‘Cocoa Flavanol-Enriched Snack Bars Containing Phytosterols Effectively Lower Total and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels’, Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 106(11), pp. 1804–1813. doi: 10.1016/j.jada.2006.08.012.

Rangkuti, A. H., 2011, ‘Teknik Pengambilan Keputusan Multi Kriteria Menggunakan Metode BAYES, MPE, CPI DAN AHP’, ComTech, 2(9), pp. 229–238.

Roth, G. A. et al. (2017) ‘Global, Regional, and National Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases for 10 Causes, 1990 to 2015’, Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 70(1), pp. 1–25. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2017.04.052.

Serino, A. and Salazar, G. (2019) ‘Protective role of polyphenols against vascular inflammation, aging and cardiovascular disease’, Nutrients, 11(1), pp. 1–23. doi: 10.3390/nu11010053.

Sharma, C. et al. (2014) ‘Cereal bars - A healthful choice a review’, Carpathian Journal of Food Science and Technology, 6(2), pp. 29–36.

Stark, Timo., Bareuther, S., Hofmann, B.. (2006) 'Molecular Definition of the Taste of Roasted Cocoa Nibs (Theobroma cacao) by Means of Quantitative Studies and Sensory Experiments', Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. doi : 10.1021/jf0608726

Sutiawati, M, Nurhaedar, J, Yustini 2013, ‘Pengaruh Edukasi Gizi Terhadap Pengetahuan, Pola Makan Dan Kadar Gulukosa Darah Pasien DM Tipe 2 RSUD Lanto DG Pasewang Jeneponto’, Media Gizi Masyarakat Indonesia, vol. 2 , no. 2, hlm. 78-84.

Tallon, M. J. (2015) Authorised EU health claim for cocoa flavanols, Foods, Nutrients and Food Ingredients with Authorised EU Health Claims: Volume 2. Elsevier Ltd. doi: 10.1016/B978-1-78242-382-9.00004-9.

The George Institute for Global Health (2017) Reducing the burden of Cardiovascular Disease in Indonesia The George Institute for Global Health, Cardiovascular Division; Health Services Research Centre. Available at: https://www.georgeinstitute.org/sites/default/files/reducing-the-burden-of-cvd-in-indonesia-evidence-review.pdf.

[WHO] World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cardiovascular-diseases-(cvds). Tanggal kutipan; 19/02/2021 0:59.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.26877/jiphp.v5i1.8179

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2021 Jurnal Ilmu Pangan dan Hasil Pertanian

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Indexing by: